Production Technique of Compost for Button Mushroom Cultivation

There are two groups of mushroom cultivators in India: those who are seasonal cultivators and those who cultivate mushrooms throughout the year. Seasonal cultivation is carried out mainly in Himachal Pradesh, Jammu

In a country like India where most of the population is vegetarian, the importance of mushroom as a source of nutrition has increased. Mushroom is used here as a vegetable. Mushroom is grown in Kashmir, mountain ranges of Uttar Pradesh, North West mountainous areas, mountainous regions of Tamil Nadu for 2 3 harvests, and in plateau regions of North West only as a winter crop. Cultivation of mushroom throughout the year is done in many parts of India. Around Chandigadh, Gudgaon, Dehradun, Ooty, Pune, Chennai and Goa there are export oriented units which annually produce 200 to 5,000 tons of mushrooms. Commercially three types of mushrooms are cultivated; Button, Oyster and Paddy straw mushrooms. Among these Button mushroom is the most favorite. All the three type of mushrooms can be cultivated in an airy room or shed very easily.

Information about mushroom cultivation in India:

Mushroom cultivation is prevalent in India since about 200 years. But the commercial cultivation has started only recently. Cultivating mushrooms in a controlled atmosphere is the emerging trend of present day. Its popularity is increasing and has taken the form of export oriented profession. Presently even in states like Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Rajasthan mushroom cultivation is done in the winter months; whereas this cultivation was limited to, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu Kashmir and some mountainous areas. Mushrooms are the best source of Vitamins, Proteins and folic acids. It is a good source of iron for weak or anemic people.

For the cultivation of button mushrooms, 22 to 26 degree C of temperature is needed in the beginning. In this heat, the fungus trap spreads fast. Afterwards 14 to 18 degree C temperature is suitable for it. In temperature less than this, the growth of shoots becomes very slow. Temperature less than 18 degree C is also harmful for the mushrooms.

Compost filling in poly bags or wooden boxes:

For the cultivation of button mushroom, Compost prepared by a special process is needed. Compost is prepared by a simple method or by pasteurization. After the compost is ready, a 6 to 8 inches thick layer of it is spread at the bottom of the wooden box or the racks. If cultivation of button mushroom is to be done in poly bags, fill the bags with the Compost only after spawning it. Make holes of 2 mm diameter in the poly bags at intervals.

Spawning of button mushrooms:

The seeds of mushrooms are called spawns. The quality of the seeds has a big effect on the production. Therefore the seeds must be bought from a reliable seller. The seeds must not be older than one month. Take seeds in quantity equal to 2 to 2.5 % of the fertilizer's weight. Spread the seeds on the layer of Compost in the wooden box and on that again spread a layer of 2 to 3” of Compost. Again make a layer 2 to 3” thick of Compost on top of this layer and spread the remaining seeds on it. Spread a thin layer of Compost on top of this.

Post spawning care of Button Mushrooms:

Creating a fungus trap:

After spawning keep the boxes or bags in the mushroom shed. Cover them with newspapers and wet them with water. To maintain required moisture spray water on the floor and walls of the room or shed. At this time, the temperature of the room should be between 22 to 26 degree C and moisture should be between 80 to 85%. The fungus trap will spread completely on the Compost in the next 15 to 20 days. During these days the mushrooms do not need fresh air. So keep the room closed.

Casing the soil:

Filter decayed dung fertilizer and part soil in equal proportion and mix them properly. Pasteurize 5 % of this mixture with Formalin or steam. Use this soil for casing. When the fungus trap fully spreads in the Compost spread a 4 to5 cm thick layer of the soil prepared by the above process on the top of it. After making this layer, maintain the room temperature at 14 to 18 degree C and moisture between 80 to 85 %. This is the time for mushroom tops to germinate. At this time light and fresh air is needed for growth. So now open the windows and ventilators of the room.

The growing of mushroom tops and its harvesting:

After 30 40 days of seeding the mushrooms and after 15 20 days of putting the casing soil, white tops of mushrooms are seen on the top of Compost which grow into button shape in 4 -5 days. When the mushroom top is in a tightened position and its membrane underneath is whole then with a little pressure of the fingers, the mushrooms are pressed and turned to pluck them. Mushrooms can be taken out with the help of a knife cutting through the surface of the Compost. Generally in a crop cycle (6 -8weeks) 5 6 harvests of mushrooms can be done.

Production and storage of Button mushrooms:

Normally 8 9 kgs of mushrooms grow in a square meter. From 100 kgs of compost, approximately 12 kgs of mushrooms are easily produced. After plucking the mushrooms wash them in clean water and soak in cold water for about 25 30 minutes. Fresh use of mushrooms is the best but they can be stored in a fridge at about 5 degree C for 4 -5 days. For local sales poly bags are used. As there is more demand of whiter mushrooms, they are treated in a solution of potassium Meta bisulphate and sold fresh. Button mushrooms are sold at approximately 120 125 rupees per kg. In marriage and engagement season they are easily sold even at 150 rupees per kg.

The technique of making Compost by pasteurization:

The technique of making Compost by pasteurization:

The production of Mushrooms depends much on good fertilized Compost. Therefore special care should be taken while preparing Compost. It is prepared by pasteurization in two steps and gets ready in 14 15 days.

First step:

The first step of preparing Compost by this method is similar to the simple process of making Compost. But in this method the shuffling is done every two days that is after 48 hours. Gypsum is mixed during the third shuffle. The Compost gets ready for the second step after 8 days.

Second step:

In the second step the compost is directly or in boxes placed in pasteurization room which is pre heated by steam at 45 degree C. after this close all the doors and windows of this room and for next 2 3 days maintain the inside temperature at 57 58 degree C with the help of steam. On the third day, bring the temperature of the room to 60 62 degree C and let fresh air into the room so that the temperature slowly falls down to 40 45 degree C. let the Compost cool down in normal temperature slowly for the next 3 -4 days. The Compost gets ready to be filled as it comes to normal temperature. The ready compost is dark brown in color and has no smell. The ph level of it is almost neutral.

The probable market of mushrooms:

The consumers of mushrooms are mostly Chinese food restaurants, hotels, clubs and homes. In big cities mushrooms are sold as through vegetable markets. Domestic use and increasing export markets and its taste and its prices create comprehensive possibilities for mushroom cultivation.

Moral:

Mushroom cultivation gives very good returns for less investment and less work.

Term of Button Mushroom :

  • Company will give you Raw Material, and Get Ready Material as per company's rules and regulation.
  • Company will purchase Ready Material 85 to 95 up to Rupees.
  • Button Mushroom's one batch get ready withing 65 days.
  • Transportation Charged will extra on the raw material, Provide you by the Company.
  • Installation will Start's within 45-50 days, after given order in the company.
  • When Construction start from the company, at that time you have to Deposit 70% of the amount in the company.
  • In Button Mushroom Plant Choosing of the place is very important, get proper guidance about that from the company
  • M.O.U. is the must with the company when your Project File get ready
  • All information of the project is in figure form, notice it.

Complete information about Button Mushroom farming will be provided by the company

(There are 5 cycles of mushroom in a year)

100 kg unit
1575 bags (100 kg production) 15 X 45 X 14 (2 rooms)

1 Refrigeration – roof panel
(2 rooms) Totally A/C room
14,00,000/- Ongoing expenses
2 Rack 1,50,000/-
3 Total 15,50,000/-
4 Compost (15,750 kg) 1,89,000/- Regular expenses
5 Spawns (seeds) 80 kg 12,000/-
Total 2,01,000/-
Grand total 17,51,000/-
Production 100 kg X 35 days = 3,500 kg
3500kg X 100/- price = 3, 50,000/-
Totally 5 cycles in a year
3,50,000 X 5 = 17,50,000/- income
Staff – 2 persons. Electricity = 15 KV
Electricity generator = 15 KV

200 kg unit
3150 bags (200 kg production) 15 X 45 X 14 (3 rooms)

1 Refrigeration – roof panel
(3 rooms) Totally A/C room
14,00,000/- Ongoing expenses
2 Rack 1,50,000/
3 Total 15,50,000/-
4 Compost (31,500 kg) 1,89,000/- Regular expenses
5 Spawns (seeds) 160 kg 12,000/-
Total 2,01,000/-
Grand total 17,51,000/-
Production 200 kg X 35 days = 7,000 kg
7000kg X 100/- price = 7, 00,000/-
Totally 5 cycles in a year
7,00,000 X 5 = 35,00,000/- income
Staff – 3 persons. Electricity = 20 KV
Electricity generator = 20 KV

300 kg unit
4725 bags (300 kg production) 15 X 45 X 14 (4 rooms)

1 Refrigeration – roof panel
(4 rooms) Totally A/C room
25,00,000/- Ongoing expenses
2 Rack 3,00,000/-
3 Total 28,00,000/-
4 Compost (47,250 kg) 5,69,000/- Regular expenses
5 Spawns (seeds) 240 kg 36,000/-
Total 6,03,000/-
Grand total 34,03,000/-
Production 300 kg X 35 days = 10,500 kg
10,500 kg X 100/- price = 10, 50,000/-
Totally 5 cycles in a year
10,50,000 X 5 = 52,50,000/- income
Staff – 3 persons. Electricity = 25 KV
Staff – 3 persons. Electricity = 25 KV

500 kg unit
7825 bags (500 kg production) 16 X 80 X 14 (6 rooms)

1 Refrigeration – roof panel
(4 rooms) Totally A/C room
65,00,000/- Ongoing expenses
2 Rack 5,00,000/-
3 Total 70,00,000/-
4 Compost (78,750 kg) 9,45,000/- Regular expenses
5 Spawns (seeds) 400 kg 60,000/-
Total 10,05,000/-
Grand total 80,05,000/-
Production 500 kg X 35 days = 17,500kg
17,500kg X 100/- price = 17, 50,000/-
Totally 5 cycles in a year
17,50,000 X 5 = 87,50,000/- income
Staff – 4 persons. Electricity = 35 KV
Electricity generator = 35 KV

100 kg unit
1575 bags (100 kg production) 15 X 45 X 14 (2 rooms)

  • Puf Penal - 80 mm in Sq. Mtr.
  • Roof Puf Penal - 80/110 mm
  • Roof Puf Penal - 80/110 mm
  • Fastner, Puf Chem, Flushing
  • Door 6 x 3.5
  • 2 Unit For Each Room with Distance 15 Ft. Air Cooled with Emerson Maker
  • C02 and RH Penal

200 kg unit
3150 bags (200 kg production) 15 X 45 X 14 (3 rooms)

  • Puf Penal - 80 mm with PPGI Sheet 356 Sq. Mtr.
  • Roof Puf Penal - 80/110 mm in 202 Sq. Mtr.
  • Other Material - Only Rivet, Silicon,
  • Fastner, Puf Chem, Flushing
  • Door 6 x 3.5
  • 2 Unit For Each Room with Distance 15 Ft. Air Cooled with Emerson Maker
  • C02 and RH Penal

300 kg unit
4725 bags (300 kg production) 15 X 45 X 14 (4 rooms)

  • Puf Penal - 80 mm with PPGI Sheet 454 Sq. Mtr.
  • Roof Puf Penal - 80/110 mm in 202 Sq. Mtr.
  • Other Material - Only Rivet, Silicon, - Fastner, Puf Chem, Flushing
  • Door 6 x 3.5
  • 2 Unit For Each Room with Distance 15 Ft. Air Cooled with Emerson Maker
  • C02 and RH Penal

500 kg unit
7825 bags (500 kg production) 16 X 80 X 14 (6 rooms)

  • Puf Penal - 80 mm with PPGI Sheet 896 Sq. Mtr.
  • Roof Puf Penal - 80/110 mm in 587 Sq. Mtr.
  • Other Material - Only Rivet, Silicon,
  • Fastner, Puf Chem, Flushing
  • Door 6 x 3.5 (1), 7 x 3.5 (1)
  • 2 Unit For Each Room with Distance 15 Ft. Air Cooled with Emerson Maker
  • Hybrid Chiller with Install
  • C02 Controller automatically and RH Display Panel and Temperature Indicator for Bag Temperature with fitting (Per Room) 200 kg unit

Please feel free to ask any question.