Pearl is a natural gem which is produced in oysters. There is an increased demand for pearls everywhere including India, but due to exploitation and pollution, it is decreasing in numbers. To fulfil the domestic demand, India is importing pearls in heavy quantity from the international market every year. The technique to make fresh pearls from oysters of fresh water has developed which are found in a large quantity all over the country.
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Pearl is a natural gem which is produced in oysters. There is an increased demand for pearls every where including India, but due to exploitation and pollution, it is decreasing in numbers. To fulfill the domestic demand, India is importing pearls in heavy quantity from the international market every year. The technique to make fresh pearls from oysters of fresh water has developed which are found in a large quantity all over the country.
A pearl is produced in a natural way when a foreign body like a sand particle or an insect enters in the oyster and the oyster cannot throw it out but covers it with shining layers. This easy method is used for pearl manufacturing. This calcium carbonate is made of organic bodies and water. The pearls available in the market can be artificial, natural or made up. The artificial pearl is not a real pearl but a product similar to it, which is round in shape and has a shiny outer layer like a pearl. The center of a natural pearl is vey micro but the outer layer is thick. It is small in size and irregular in shape. Produced pearl is also similar to a natural pearl, the only difference being that the human efforts are added to it to get size, shapes and color as per choice. Normally in India, three breeds of oysters are found: - laymilidens marginalia, 1. koreanas and pairshia korugata from which good quality pearls can be produced. In our Indian rivers mostly we find oysters named parishia korugata. The oysters we need to produce pearls should be 10 to 12 cms in length and 50 gms in weight. In the chemical disintegration of a pearl, we find 82 to 86% calcium carbonate, 10 to 14% conical and 2 to 4% water.
Perals are of two types, natural and manmade
Manmade pearl is produced by Tissue transplant of mantle cavity.
Pearl fanning needs a lake of minimum 10 x10 feet or a bigger sized lake. To start pearl fanning the farmer needs to collect the clamshells first. After that a small operation is done upon which designer moulds like that of a Ganpati, Buddha or flowers etc of 4 to 6 millimeter diameter is inserted in each clamshell. Then the shell is closed. These shells are kept in nylon bags for 10 days nurturing with natural fodder and antibiotics. They are checked daily and dead shells are removed. Then the shells are put into the lake. For this they are kept in nylon bags (two shells per bag) and hung in the lake with the help of a bamboo stick or PVC pipe and let loose in the lake at the depth of 1 meter. The sticky secretion deposits around the nucleus and in the end take the shape of a pearl. The designer slits open the shell and takes away the pearl after about 8 10 months.
The method is decided according to the spot of the surgery 1. Center of the surface. 2. Cell of the surface and 3. Surgery of the reproductive organs. The main things used in this are the nucleus and mould, which are made from the shell covers or materials with calcium. Surgery of the center of the surface: In this process, designer moulds of 3 to 6 mm diameter with the shape of Ganesh, Buddha or flowers etc are inserted after separating the two covers of the shell. The covers are separated with the help of surgical instruments. Efforts are made to keep the designed side is towards the surface. After placing the mould thus the shell is closed leaving some space. Surgery of the surface cell: here the shell is divided in two categories donor and the receiver. In this process, the first step is to prepare a graft (small parts of the cell). For this a strip is made from the borders of the shell which is for the donor. This is cut in two small parts of 2/2 mm for the receiver of the designer mould. This is of two types, nucleus and non nucleus. In the non nucleus type only the cut parts or the grafts are inserted while in the other type one part of graft and a small nucleus of 2 mm is also inserted. Care is taken that the nucleus or the graft does not come out. Surgery of the reproductive organs; in this also a proper process of making grafts is applied. First of a cut is made on the border of the clamshell's reproductive area. After that one nucleus and a graft are so inserted that they cling to each other. Care is taken that the nucleus touches the outer part of the graft and during the surgery need to cut the intestine does not occur.
If you are interested in doing business with minimum investment and get good profit, then this news is useful for you. You can achieve your this financial goal by doing pearl farming. By investing just 2 lakh rupees you can earn about Rs. 20 lakh in a year. Start with investing Rs. 20,000: One clamshell costs about Rs.20 to 30. The cost of pearls from 1 mm to 20mm is about Rs.300 to Rs.1, 500 in the market. Nowadays the designer pearls have a good demand for which you can get good returns. Compared to Indian market you can earn well by exporting pearls to foreign markets. Also you can sell the shells after getting the pearls out of it. These shells are used as decorative material.
There is an increased demand for pearls everywhere including India, but due to exploitation and pollution, its production is decreasing. To fulfill the domestic demand, India is importing pearls in heavy quantity from the international market every year. My motherland emits gold and pearls. Truly our country has a long sea coastal line and many perennial rivers and lakes. Apart from fishing, our unemployed youth and farmers can earn good profit now by rearing pearls.
The fanners bearing the disasters because of draught and bad monsoon as well as the jobless students should come forward in the field of pearl rearing because the demand of pearls in and out of the country the future of pearl farming seems bright. Many youth from different states have accepted pearl farming as a profession.
Information about pearls:
Information about pearls:
|Number of Clamshells||2000||5000||10000||25000||50000||100000|
|Space||10 x 10||15 x 20||20 x 30||40 x 40||60 x 50||100 x 60|
|Expense of creating a lake||3500 /-||12,000 /-||25,000 /-||60,000 /-||1,20,000 /-||2,40,000 /-|
|Shells (Rs. 12 per piece)||24,000 /-||60,000 /-||1,20,000 /-||3,00,000 /-||6,00,000 /-||12,00,000 /-|
|Expense on nucleus||16,000 /-||40,000 /-||80,000 /-||2,00,000 /-||4,00,000 /-||8,00,000 /-|
|Expense of maintaining the clamshells (annual)||1,500 /-||4,000 /-||8,000 /-||15,000 /-||28,000 /-||52,000 /-|
|Structure set up||1,000 /-||2,500 /-||5,000 /-||10,000 /-||20,000 /-||30,000 /-|
|Water treatment||1,000 /-||1,000 /-||1,000 /-||1,000 /-||1,000 /-||1,000 /-|
|Equipments and other chemicals||5,000 /-||15,000 /-||30,000 /-||70,000 /-||1,40,000 /-||2,80,000 /-|
|Total expenses||52,000 /-||1,34,500 /-||2,69,000 /-||6,56,000 /-||13,09,000 /-||26,03,000 /-|